What is Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)?
Sudden Cardiac Arrest is the sudden, unexpected loss of heart function, breathing and consciousness. There are usually no warning signs or symptoms, and victims of SCA usually appear to be in perfect health just seconds before their collapse. Sudden Cardiac arrest results from an electrical disturbance, or “short circuit,” in the heart that disrupts its pumping action, stopping blood flow to the brain and other vital organs in the body.
A person in sudden cardiac arrest is not breathing, not responsive, and has no detectable heart rhythm. SCA is different from a heart attack, which occurs when there is a blockage in the flow of blood, and is usually preceded by warning signs. Sudden Cardiac Arrest usually causes death if not treated with CPR and an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) within the first ten minutes.
Sudden Cardiac Arrest is the number one killer of high school athletes on school grounds. According to the American Heart Association, nearly 325,000 youth and adults experience a Sudden Cardiac Arrest each year. Between 2,000-9,000 of these arrests occur in kids and teens. Some estimates place the incidence of SCA in youth as affecting 16 kids per day in the U.S. In the past, SCA has been difficult to quantify due to outdated data collection and preservation methods among medical examiners (such as labeling an SCA as a “heart attack” or using DNA preservatives that decrease the quality of the sample), but improvements are being made daily.
Although young people who have a family history of heart issues are at greater risk for Sudden Cardiac Arrest, SCA can happen in people who appear healthy and have no known risk factors for structural or arrhythmic heart issues. Teen and young adult athletes are at a greater risk for SCA due to commotio cordis, or a hit to the heart during play, or Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, or thickening of one wall of the heart that can be due to strenuous exercise. Nearly 70% of the conditions that can cause Sudden Cardiac Arrest can be identified with a simple, non-invasive electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) exam, yet EKG exams are not yet included in pediatric protocol for routine well-child visits. Some of the more prevalent conditions that are identified through EKG screenings include Long Q-T Syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Brugada Syndrome, Marfan Syndrome, and others. Most of these conditions are treatable. None of these conditions can be detected with a stethoscope.
At Aidan’s Heart Foundation, we feel very strongly that parents should be given the opportunity to take preventative measures to ensure protection for their children against Sudden Cardiac Arrest. We provide resources, such as the Pediatric Heart Health History questionnaire, as well as free heart screening events so that families can obtain important information about their children’s hearts and take measures to prevent sudden death from cardiac arrest.
We also help place Automated External Defibrillators, or AEDs, in places where youth are athletically active to ensure the greatest chance of survival from a cardiac arrest. And we teach students and adults the life-saving skills of Hands-Only CPR and how to use an AED.
This three-pronged mission helps us to create “heart-safe” communities for kids and reduce the loss of life from SCA.